Psoriasis and Antimicrobial Peptides
The author:Go Top Peptide Biotech    Released in:2021年04月28日
摘要:“antimicrobial” peptides are often involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by activating the innate immune system and triggering inflammation by various mechanisms independent of infection.

Psoriasis is a representative autoimmune or inflammatory skin disorder characterized by well-delineated, raised areas of red or salmon-pink papulosquamous plaques covered by white or silvery scales . Psoriasis shows a diverse prevalence across worldwide populations: 1.5–3% in Europeans , 0.05–3% in Africans, and 0.1–0.5% in Asians, Several triggering factors have been linked with an exacerbation of psoriasis, such as infection, wounds, obesity, stress, and genetic factors , and exposure to certain drugs can induce or exacerbate psoriasis. Strong associations have been documented for beta-blockers, lithium, antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine, interferons, imiquimod, and terbinafine , and new associations have been reported for monoclonal antibodies such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonists and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immune checkpoint inhibitors .


1.Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptides (CAMPs)

Cathelicidin was the first AMP identified in mammalian skin. A single cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene (CAMP) encodes the precursor protein hCAP18 in humans. hCAP18 is variously cleaved by proteases to generate several active AMPs, including the 37-amino-acid peptide LL-37 . 

Psoriasis and Antimicrobial Peptides

2.Defensins

Defensins are a type of cationic microbial peptide and contain six conserved cysteine residues that form three pairs of intramolecular disulfide bonds. In contrast to the presence of the single human cathelicidin gene CAMP, humans have multiple defensin genes that form several gene clusters. 

Psoriasis and Antimicrobial Peptides

3. Cell-Specific Regulation of AMPs in Psoriasis

4. Cytokine and Intracellular Signaling Regulation by AMPs in Psoriasis

Conclusions

Psoriasis is not just an inflammation of the epidermis or an immune disease derived only from T cells, but a systemic inflammatory disease caused by crosstalk between various cells such as keratinocytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and T cells. Contrary to their name, “antimicrobial” peptides are often involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by activating the innate immune system and triggering inflammation by various mechanisms independent of infection. At present, there is no established treatment targeting antimicrobial peptides, and blocking or degradation of AMPs is expected to be a novel treatment for psoriasis.


Original source:

Takahashi T, Yamasaki K. Psoriasis and Antimicrobial Peptides. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Sep 16;21(18):6791. doi: 10.3390/ijms21186791. PMID: 32947991; PMCID: PMC7555190.


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